When the Unity of Italy occurred, the ancient fortress of Pescara, marked by the river with the same name, was demolished to allow the expansion of the Adriatic city. On the mighty sixteenth century building, eastern defense of the Kingdom of Naples, remain only the eighteenth and nineteenth century maps made by the military.
Cartagena de Indias, one of the main Spanish commercial ports in the Caribbean Sea, was strategically built on a system of islands and peninsulas that formed a lacustrine system along the coast of Tierra Firme, known today as Colombia. For several centuries, Cartagena fortifications have been at the fore-front of Spanish military technologies. This site became the scene of action of the main military engineers at the service of the Spanish crown. In 1586 Battista Antonelli received from King Philipe II the task to design this monumental defensive system.
The landscape of Lazio’s Tyrrhenian coasts is strongly characterized by the presence of fortifications. Parallel to them, in the interland, the baronial expansion, between the tenth and eleventh centuries, paved the way to a large-scale fortification of the Roman countryside. Along the main routes were built lookout towers, farmhouses were consolidated with defense mechanism and the first castles were constructed.