The fortress of San Paolino in Ripafratta (San Giuliano Terme, Tuscany, Italy), represents the main structure of the ancient Pisan Republic defensive system towards Lucca. The fortress is the product of several stratifications dating back to the tenth century. It was built in the years between 1162-1164; later on, starting from 1504, significant interventions of modernization were realized by the Florentine Government, probably following a project by Giuliano da San Gallo.
The Fortress of Arquata del Tronto in the Marche region is an imposing structure that rises on the crag to the north of the historic center. It represents a typical example of military architecture in the Apennines Area. Its foundation is between the eleventh and the twelfth century, an initial phase of embankment which undergoes a gradual and progressive increase in structures to enhance the functionality of the fortress.
Biandrate is a northern Italian village in the province of Novara that lies in the Po plain between the Sesia and Ticino rivers. Border area disputed between Vercelli and Novara, since the early Middle Ages it represented an important crossing point because there were the fords of the Sesia river nearby, on the road axis joining Novara and Ivrea.
The contribution reports on a research concerning the preparatory investigation of some fortified systems of Tanaro Valley (Piedmont) in view of their restoration.
The castle of Arnara, is located in Ciociaria in southern Lazio, in what was once the feud of the Conti of Ceccano. For the territory it is the most important monumental complex of medieval architecture. In fact, despite its small size, it is one of the few examples of fortified architecture still original in its essential lines.
What are the risk factors that undermine the conservation of fortified architecture? What are the future prospects of a heritage that is not always adequately protected and valued? These are the questions posed by castles, towers, fortresses that seem to have lost the meaning of their existence, for having failed in their original function. Certainly the abandonment involves an inevitable lack of maintenance with the inevitable decay due to natural causes with slow action and prolonged over time.