In the Middle Ages a chain suspended between two towers defended the entrance of Kyrenia’s little harbour, like the chain across the Golden Horn in Constantinople. William de Oldenburg, who visited Cyprus in 1211 during the reign of King Hugh I, referred to Kyrenia as “a small town well-fortified, which has a castle with walls and towers”. He perceived the chain tower as part of Kyrenia’s fortification system in that time.
Built in the Perugia acropolis in the mid-sixteenth century as a physical expression of the oppressive reprisal of Pope Paul III against the city’s seigniory of the Baglioni family, the Rocca Paolina has always been hated by the Perugia people who, on several occasions during the nineteenth century, did not hesitate to demolish it.
Nicosia today has the characteristics of being the only divided city in Europe. By examining the inside of the walls, one observes that the structure of the city is determined by the circular plan of the walls that were constructed during the Venetian period. There are 11 bastions on the walls and three Venetian gates, namely Kyrenia Gate, Famagusta Gate and Paphos Gate, were originally designed to allow entrance to the city that is encircled by the walls. Nicosia continued to be the islands capital which has fallen under Ottoman rule in between 1571-1878.
The “modern” fortifications at Piacenza are situated at a significant physical and cultural crossroads linking the Mediterranean and roads leading to Central Europe and the North Sea. This paper aims to include their historical bastion features and city walls within an open-air educational museum that is well integrated within the modern town.