The ribat in Bouna (present day Annaba), also called the Fusula Ribat, dominates the promontory of the hill with the same name and overlooks the port of the town. This defensive structure, whose typology dates from the Fatimid period, belonged to a chain of ribats marking Islamic territory along the length of the Mediterranean coast. It was concealed under the Sidi Boumerouane Mosque. Thus, through a series of transformations, the site became a veritable military-religious complex.
The castle of Montefrío (Granada) was one of the fortresses that formed the last line of defense of the Nasrid kingdom. After its surrender, in 1486, the castle served as a Castilian border stronghold until the fall of the Nasrid capital, Granada, six years later, which put an end to the Christian conquest of al-Andalus.
The study relating to the town walls of Nola (a city near Naples) is one of the most interesting among those about the Neapolitan military architecture between the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The building phases of the defensive walls allow us to retrace two main moments of the Renaissance military architecture.
Right after the Unification of Italy, land’s topography, with landscape acquisition and restitution through explorations across borders, and in particular regarding Austro-Hungarian fortification on the Italian land and sea border, were immediately observed by Major State’s officials.
Most of the walls of Cádiz is mainly due to the works carried out on the seventeenth century. During this period the defenses of the Puerta Tierra wall –the city’s only terrestrial communication point– were expanded with the incorporation of new defensive elements, such as the so-called “crownwork”. However, it was during the eighteenth century when this defensive element acquired its last configuration, which did not correspond to the last planned project.
The results of the investigation prior to the excavation work in the Castle of San Luis, in Estepona (Málaga, Spain) are presented. It is a coastal fortress built in the last quarter of the sixteenth century, in the context of the reorganisation of the defense of the western coast of Malaga after the Moorish rebellion of 1568. After analysing the available literature, we propose that it was designed by the Engineer Juan Ambrosio Malgrá, Maestro Mayor de obras del Reino de Granada.
Which is the relationship between town and fortification? In a traditional perspective this has largely been considered a question of defense of the civilian population. However, this factor, though certainly important in several cases, cannot be seen as the only relevant factor addressing the problem. There are also other traditional explanations. One of these relates to questions of paying custom for selling and buying items. The fortified enclosure would make control of payment easier.
The Black Sea is an interior sea and located between Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, Georgia and Turkey. The Black Sea flows through the Bosporus and reaches the Marmara Sea. Strong winds and stream has seen in the Black Sea in most of times in a year. Because of that natural bays were preferred while the ports and settlements were established.