The so-called “beach-tower” is the smallest of the three remaining towers belonging to the Kyrenia’s medieval enceinte. Semi-circular in plan, with circa 6 m of diameter, the tower is today partially obliterated by the medieval urban tissue and is visible only from one side. Built during the twelfth-thirteenth centuries, this harbour overlooking tower is raised on a pedestal in the north-west inner corner of the city walled enclosure.
The Belvedere Castle of Fiumedinisi (ME) belongs to that historical heritage of Sicily characterized by abandoned and forgotten military architecture. Along the Ionian coast the defensive problem has been particularly felt over time, due to the proximity of the Turkish coast, the Middle East and the African one. The first defensive line was the coastal one, defined by principals placed on the sea in a strategic position for direct control of the coast.
Cartagena de Indias, one of the main Spanish commercial ports in the Caribbean Sea, was strategically built on a system of islands and peninsulas that formed a lacustrine system along the coast of Tierra Firme, known today as Colombia. For several centuries, Cartagena fortifications have been at the fore-front of Spanish military technologies. This site became the scene of action of the main military engineers at the service of the Spanish crown. In 1586 Battista Antonelli received from King Philipe II the task to design this monumental defensive system.
All the fortifications have their time. They respond to specific way of defending and attacking they change in time accordingly to the terrible habits of the weaponry and technology evolution.
The survey of the Lastra a Signa city walls (built between the second half of 1300 and the first half of 1400) is the result of three different survey campaigns made in 2006-2007-2008 and of the following data processing carried out as part of a Master thesis. It is a paradigmatic example of the overcoming of the concept of “survey as a mere measurement and graphic representation of a certain element”, by using a methodology protocol.
The paper illustrates the documentation and analysis methods of a wing of the Kyrenia castle in Cyprus. The laser-scanner and photogrammetry Structure from Motion (SfM) survey campaigns took place during the international workshop “Reading and designing the Kyrenia Castle” held in May 2018 in Girne, involving the Girne American University (Cyprus) and the University of Florence.
This paper deals with the documentation and digital survey of fortifications in the historic city of Piombino. During the Renaissance the fortified perimeter of the city was considerably enlarged, both because of the will of the Lords of Piombino, the Appiani, to build a fortified citadel, deeming the previous urban palace inadequate for the ruling family, and to improve the defenses by land with the construction of a rivellino in front of the north door and of a fortress to the east.