Having lost their function of sighting as an instrument of strategic control, inclusion and protection from presumed pirate invasions, the coastal towers of Calabria Ultra, represented in the Diary of Wonders of the end of the sixteenth century, called Codice Romano Carratelli, will act as the key and device of the gaze that links the land to the expanse of water.
The city of Mula (Region of Murcia, Spain), still retains important canvases of the medieval wall of the three enclosures (Alcazaba, Albacar and Medina) that shaped the urban layout from the twelfth century (Muslim domain), until the end of the fifteenth century (Christian Reconquest). Currently, the Albacar site is the most complete. On the Islamic Alcazaba was built, in the sixteenth century, the Castle and the wall of the Medina, only a few sections remain. Until now, the medieval wall was a great unknown.
When the Unity of Italy occurred, the ancient fortress of Pescara, marked by the river with the same name, was demolished to allow the expansion of the Adriatic city. On the mighty sixteenth century building, eastern defense of the Kingdom of Naples, remain only the eighteenth and nineteenth century maps made by the military.
Against the threat of Islamic, Norman and Greek pirates, starting from the eighth century, or due to conflicts with the Genoese, Catalans, Neapolitans and French, up to the English and Dutch corsairs from the sixteenth century, Elba island is organized with a respectable defensive apparatus, especially thanks to the Pisans and the Lordship of the Appiano.
In the studies the authors are conducting on the entrenched camp of Rome, 3D surveys and digital models are used as means to understand constructions with the aim of developing restoration and re-utilization projects. For Forte Monte Antenne (1882-1891), the authors have carried out systematic studies of the formal and structural aspects.
The essay proposes a project of enhancement and valorization of the Fort of Charles V to guard the harbor of Agrigento, in 1549.
The Piemonte cultural territory is also characterized by the significant presence of complex defensive systems, grouped by types and orographic configuration.