During the Modern Age we witnessed the birth, consolidation and decline of great powers that dragged numerous political and religious conflicts with them. The Mediterranean Sea, as area of contact between the most distant Empires, experienced an era of intense naval activity in the form of piracy, race wars and armed deterrence, spreading along its shores with coastal watch towers.
The coast of the Kingdom of Granada was a border of importance in Nasrid times and it was also a zone to be protected after the Castilian conquest, mostly against piracy. To control the sea, the successive rulers would build a system of fortresses and watchtowers. The objective of this paper is to apply spatial analysis to the defense system of the southern coasts of Granada and Almeria from the fifteenth to seventeenth century, focusing in its evolution.
During his reign Frederick II built a series of representative fortified constructions in southern Italy, and after reinforcing the defence line of the border with the State of the Church, he decided to build many residential estates called domus or palacium in the fundamental medieval textual source of Statutum de reparatione castrorum.
The landscape of the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, south of Campania, is dotted with a wide variety of fortresses, castles, towers and all kinds of fortifications. The populations who settled there since the early Middle Ages have left traces of their presence through buildings that, from the initial purpose of independent defense of the individual settlement, have changed over time, especially in the Norman period, in a broader system and structured for the control of the territory.
The purpose of this contribution is to analyze the spatial distribution of the place names referred to the Tuscan territory, to fortified structures and settlements, through the study of the place names recorded geodatabase RE.TO.RE. (Regional Toponymic Repertory) created by the Tuscany Region with the scientific contribution of the Universities of Pisa, Florence and Siena.
The northwestern limit of the Seville domains constituted a complex frontier space of high potencial tension throughout the Late Middle Ages. Once the conquest of this historical territory was over, the council of Seville promotes the definition of a castral system destined to guarantee the guard and defense of its extensive territory.
This study addressed the historical phenomenon known as incastellamento, in the area of the current province of Viterbo, from a quantitative and geographical perspective. The time period considered was the 10th-15th century. The paper describes the documentary sources, historical maps, aerial images, past studies and archaeological sources that are available to researchers, and which have been used, in good measure, to reconstruct the fortified settlement network.