Throughout history, Algerian coastal towns have been subject to various threats by sea, which has resulted in different types of fortification works. Their variety depended on their period of construction, the materials used and the genius of the place. In Algiers, these structures of fortifications vary between fortified castle, ramparts, watchtowers, etc. However, this historical legacy is, day after day, threatened with disappearance for lack of support.
Castel Penede is located on a rocky spur, the farthest north-west extension of Monte Baldo, protruding to close up the pass from Upper Garda to Adige Valley, protecting the Torbole harbour. The structure of the fortified complex spans over a period of almost five centuries, from the twelfth to the sixteenth century, in an area featuring an at least bi-millennial settlement sequence. The path of knowledge started in 2008 with the historic and stratigraphic analysis.
The wall of Biar goes around the historical part of the city and connects it with the castle at the top of the hill. This urban wall was comprised by the city wall and a walk wall, which were protected by a battlement and a series of towers. Currently, the urban wall has been swallowed by changes in the area. Internal edifications to the city wall have progressively taken over the wall and, in its outside part, an area as wide as the towers has been occupied, which has eventually set up the front part of Torreta street.
The bulwark of the Alcazaba is one of the polyorcetic reforms that the Catholic Monarchs introduced on the Alhambra since the conquest of Granada in 1492, in order to adapt the fortress to pyrobalistic artillery, as well as to stablish a new relationship with the city. In essence, it was built in rammed earth, using brick and masonry fabrics in certain points.
The Orsini Colonna castle of Avezzano represents one of the most important historic buildings in the internal area of Abruzzo. Founded at the end of the fifteenth century, on the rests of an older structure, with continuing modification till the sixteenth century, the building had several damages with the earthquake of January thirteenth 1915, which destroyed the entire city Avezzano and the neighborhood, causing more than 30000 victims.
To those who travel through Puglia from the Gargano down to Capo di Leuca and from here to the Bradano, it impossible not to appreciate the variety of the coastal landscape that is characterized, from north to south, by the almost constant presence of fortifications.
The Porta Valbona study is part of a complex project of conservation and valorisation of the defensive walls of Urbino that the research group, of the School of Conservation and Restoration of the University of Urbino Carlo Bo, has developed in recent years.
The medieval city walls of Almeria have abundant references in Arabic sources and numerous preserved remains, either in all its elevation, or as small archaeological remains on the current slope and even under the ground. This circumstance has given rise to a lot of scientific literature on the chronology of each of the different existing precincts: Alcazaba, Medina, suburbs and outer enclosure.
The “modern” fortifications at Piacenza are situated at a significant physical and cultural crossroads linking the Mediterranean and roads leading to Central Europe and the North Sea. This paper aims to include their historical bastion features and city walls within an open-air educational museum that is well integrated within the modern town.