Ceuta is built on a peninsula at the southern shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. It’s a strategic point for communications between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and between two continents: Europe and Africa. As Ceuta ships rule the Gibraltar Strait in Medieval and Modern Ages, main defensive efforts were tuned of to Land Front. Consequently, in 950 ‘Abd al-Rahman III built a new fence in order to protect the madina reusing Roman and Byzantine fortifications.
In a city already formed in its essential traits, with its historic districts of Castello, Stampace, Villanova and Llapola, the Hispanic Monarchy had a great influence on Cagliari urban structure adapting the defenses to the new war needs, exploiting to the most the internal walls space and encouraging the cultivation of extra-moenia areas left in a state of abandonment.
Starting from the sixteenth century, the coastal landscape of Sardinia suffered deep transformations related to the construction of defensive structures to protect the inhabitants of the towns and land resources. Coastal towers and fortresses are the most evident signs of these interventions. This paper aims to reconstruct these processes through archival and cartographic documents produced between the second half of the sixteenth century and the first decades of the seventeenth century.