The integrated method is been applied in the meet point between the curtain of Santa Chiara and the curtain of de Cardona, in a limited area of the ancient walls of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy). The sector consists of a bastion called “curtain of Santa Chiara” designed in 1575 and realized in the period 1575-1578 by the military engineer Giorgio Paleari and the “curtain of de Cardona”, a military work commissioned by the Viceroy in the 1930s of the same century and interested by modification until the seventeenth century.
This paper presents a unique case of castilian remodelling of an islamic fortress, the castle of Iznájar, conquered by Pedro I between 1362 and 1366, with the clear intention of staying in the territory. For that purpose, defensive improvements were introduced, wich are clearly identified in the context of the fortified compound. This episode, well bounded in time, allows to recognize the Castilian contributions to the Nasrid defensive achitecture.
In Irpinia, to grasp the extent to which the multiform and varied castellated density still has today, it is necessary to look at its hilly and mountainous landscapes or read the toponyms of its villages: from the recent study carried out in the Province of Avellino, there is a list of 78 castles still visible in elevation, a very high figure if you consider that the entire provincial territory is composed of 118 municipalities, for a percentage of almost 70%.
The Atalaya Castle (eighteenth century) is one of the military fortifications that were part of the defense of Cartagena. The defensive system of the period was composed of an important walled enclosure, which surrounded the city, the arsenal, and a group of fortresses outside the city wall, located on the nearby hills. One of these defensive constructions is the Atalaya Castle or Fort, located to the west of the city from its position it protected the population from attacks both by land and by sea.
In the Middle Ages a chain suspended between two towers defended the entrance of Kyrenia’s little harbour, like the chain across the Golden Horn in Constantinople. William de Oldenburg, who visited Cyprus in 1211 during the reign of King Hugh I, referred to Kyrenia as “a small town well-fortified, which has a castle with walls and towers”. He perceived the chain tower as part of Kyrenia’s fortification system in that time.
Since the Fall of the Berlin Wall, more than 8000 militaries installations worldwide have been made available for civilian use. To many, the idea of attempting to conserve military sites from the Cold War sounds discordant due to the awkward or “uncomfortable” nature of the subject matter and the generally unappealing aesthetics associated.
The objective of this research is regarding the construction techniques used in the military architecture of Cittadella-Fortezza (Ancona, Marche, Italy). In this case, attention will focus primarily on historical, bibliographic and archive research, then through a comprehensive analysis of building methods used in the sixteenth century and on the strategic function that this fortification covered in the coastal strip of the Middle Adriatic.