Ceuta is built on a peninsula at the southern shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. It’s a strategic point for communications between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and between two continents: Europe and Africa. As Ceuta ships rule the Gibraltar Strait in Medieval and Modern Ages, main defensive efforts were tuned of to Land Front. Consequently, in 950 ‘Abd al-Rahman III built a new fence in order to protect the madina reusing Roman and Byzantine fortifications.
The conservation of the fortification in Tarragona was not an easy task. In 1884 the Roman wall was declared a National Monument, and in 1966 it was declared a historical and artistic complex. These measures distant in time did not achieve a joint protection of it. This study deals with the transformation of the bastion of Cadenas in the San Antonio Promenade. It is an example of urban speculation during Franco’s developmentalism.
The results of the investigation prior to the excavation work in the Castle of San Luis, in Estepona (Málaga, Spain) are presented. It is a coastal fortress built in the last quarter of the sixteenth century, in the context of the reorganisation of the defense of the western coast of Malaga after the Moorish rebellion of 1568. After analysing the available literature, we propose that it was designed by the Engineer Juan Ambrosio Malgrá, Maestro Mayor de obras del Reino de Granada.