The Melogno pass (Colle del Melogno) is located at 1026 m above sea level, between the high Val Bormida and the hinterland of the Finalese (province of Savona) and is one of the highest mountain passes in the Ligurian Alps. In ancient times, this zone was considered strategically important from the military point of view since it is located at the crossroads of many communication routes.
Known since the eleventh century, the castle of Cerreto Ciampoli was one of the main fortifications of the ancient Republic of Siena (Tuscany, Italy). The magnificent ruins, located on the top of a hill overlooking the Chianti Mountains, consist of two city walls, a door, a church, the remains of some rooms and a mighty tower lying on the ground broken up into five sections of several meters in length.
The hinterland of Rimini is characterized by the presence of many castles, but the fortress of San Leo is certainly the most representative because of its position and the different constructive contributions that over time have updated its appearance and military functions.
The Budello tower is located on a slight promontory from which it dominates the entire bay of Teulada and the towers of Sant’Isidoro, Pixinni, Malfatano and Porto Scudo.
The contribution aims to present the path of knowledge on the external surfaces of the Courtyard of the Cavallerizza and the Castle of San Giorgio in Palazzo Ducale in Mantua, the subject of an upcoming conservation project. In particular, the results emerged through the autopsy and stratigraphic survey of areas selected by sample, relating to the technique of execution and the constituent materials of the finishes.