The fortress of San Paolino in Ripafratta (San Giuliano Terme, Tuscany, Italy), represents the main structure of the ancient Pisan Republic defensive system towards Lucca. The fortress is the product of several stratifications dating back to the tenth century. It was built in the years between 1162-1164; later on, starting from 1504, significant interventions of modernization were realized by the Florentine Government, probably following a project by Giuliano da San Gallo.
Sicily’s coasts are studded with fortifications, a few which are still intact and serve as a testimony of the island’s thousand year old history. Their original function of defence and control was closely linked to aspects of formality and strategic positioning in the Mediterranean. For this reason, they once constituted strong holds on the territory and represented important elements of symbolic connotations.
The contribution intends to provide a reading and an in-depth study of the defensive heritage located in the Zhujiang river basin and its delta in Guangdong, China. The paper focuses on the case of diaolou, defensive towers already listed as UNESCO since 2007, built from the sixteenth century until the first half of the twentieth century in Kaiping country. These buildings show an interesting mixture of some local models and typologies and specific characters and styles borrowed from western examples.
The contribution reports on a research concerning the preparatory investigation of some fortified systems of Tanaro Valley (Piedmont) in view of their restoration.
The Fortress was built from 1554, on the ruins of an ancient convent, at the behest of Philip of Austria, and it was completed in about 55 years under the direction of Giulio Cesare Falco, knight of the Order of Malta and Captain General against the Turks.
The material remains of the First World War field-battles are gradually disappearing, especially in marginal mountain areas, due to negligence and changes in land coverage. The paper presents the first stage of an ongoing project, devoted to identifying the forgotten material features of war landscapes on the Trentino Alps, using a wide range of historical sources, such as cartography, aerial and ground photos, textual descriptions and field surveys.
Residing in the Mediterranean Sea, Ionian islands signify the passage from the west to the east. A constantly sought-after region due to the trade routes, was for a long time garrisoned and under the authority of the Venetian Republic (fourteenth-eighteenth centuries) that hindered with its fleet the Turkish invasions.
Having lost their function of sighting as an instrument of strategic control, inclusion and protection from presumed pirate invasions, the coastal towers of Calabria Ultra, represented in the Diary of Wonders of the end of the sixteenth century, called Codice Romano Carratelli, will act as the key and device of the gaze that links the land to the expanse of water.
The complex structure of the Ligurian territory has found a precise correspondence in the development of the defensive structures. If the main cities were able to provide themselves with “closed” defence systems (the most important of which –the Genoese city walls– are second only in size to the Chinese Wall), the smaller cities and the poorly built areas were equipped with a real “network” of widespread and punctual defensive elements.
The seventy-nine castles in the care of English Heritage Trust (EHT) are some of the most visually stunning and historically important in the world. In recent years, EHT has explored new ways of sharing the histories and stories of these properties with local communities and with domestic and international visitors.