Castle Garth is the name of the fortified area once enclosed within the castle walls. In the fifteenth century Newcastle became a county in its own right, however, the Garth, being within the castle walls, remained part of the County of Northumberland. The Great Hall, a building separate from the Castle Fortress (the “Keep”), which in later years became known as the “Old Moot Hall”, was used by courts that sat at regular intervals in every county of England and Wales.
The castle of Arnara, is located in Ciociaria in southern Lazio, in what was once the feud of the Conti of Ceccano. For the territory it is the most important monumental complex of medieval architecture. In fact, despite its small size, it is one of the few examples of fortified architecture still original in its essential lines.
The paper recalls the well known urban facts of Tripoli during the Italian colonialism to eventually deepen the theme of the preservation of the past and not only of the Roman one, as well of the city walls. The town plan has been analyzed not only as it has been approved but also as it has been argued, not only through the drawings but also by the debate.
The “modern” fortifications at Piacenza are situated at a significant physical and cultural crossroads linking the Mediterranean and roads leading to Central Europe and the North Sea. This paper aims to include their historical bastion features and city walls within an open-air educational museum that is well integrated within the modern town.
During the communist regime of Enver Hoxha, Albania built nearly 200 000 bunkers as a measure of protection towards an imaginary attack from (un)known enemies of the Popular Socialist Republic. Most of these structures built in concrete are still part of the landscapes almost in every part of the territory.
The central theme is the Project Financing, a complex financial instrument that can potentially be used to give a new life to a state property with a strong historical and architectural value and in a state of neglect, through the use of public-private partnerships.
The town of Finale Ligure, situated on the western coast of Liguria, was the site of the Del Carretto Marquisate until the sixteenth century. After that, it was under the control of the Spanish Crown (seventeenth century) and it has been an independent territory of the Republic of Genoa for a long time. The three castles were built on the top of Finale hills and they were the symbol of its independence.
The fortress of San Paolino in Ripafratta (San Giuliano Terme, Tuscany, Italy), represents the main structure of the ancient Pisan Republic defensive system towards Lucca. The fortress is the product of several stratifications dating back to the tenth century. It was built in the years between 1162-1164; later on, starting from 1504, significant interventions of modernization were realized by the Florentine Government, probably following a project by Giuliano da San Gallo.
Massafra Castle’s restoration project aims to preserve and enhance the monument, redeeming it from the current state of partial abandonment, with the scope to return it to the community. First, an in-depth study of an historical research was carried out together with the analysis of the monument’ superficial and structural degradation to identify the adequate remedies. It was clear that “restoring only the stones” would have not been efficient and therefore finding a new purpose was necessary and essential.
What are the risk factors that undermine the conservation of fortified architecture? What are the future prospects of a heritage that is not always adequately protected and valued? These are the questions posed by castles, towers, fortresses that seem to have lost the meaning of their existence, for having failed in their original function. Certainly the abandonment involves an inevitable lack of maintenance with the inevitable decay due to natural causes with slow action and prolonged over time.