The Belvedere Castle of Fiumedinisi (ME) belongs to that historical heritage of Sicily characterized by abandoned and forgotten military architecture. Along the Ionian coast the defensive problem has been particularly felt over time, due to the proximity of the Turkish coast, the Middle East and the African one. The first defensive line was the coastal one, defined by principals placed on the sea in a strategic position for direct control of the coast.
When the Unity of Italy occurred, the ancient fortress of Pescara, marked by the river with the same name, was demolished to allow the expansion of the Adriatic city. On the mighty sixteenth century building, eastern defense of the Kingdom of Naples, remain only the eighteenth and nineteenth century maps made by the military.
The contribution intends to bring to the attention of the scientific community the important Heritage made of plastic models, more or less homogeneously spread throughout Europe, which constitutes a patrimony of knowledge that links theoretical contributions on fortification, realizations, historical studies, archive documentation, technical representations, surveys, iconographic material.
The analysis of the fortified routes in the city of Pavia (Italy) clarifies the adaptation of the medieval capital in the historical politics of the Mediterranean, where the evolution of the defensive system till the Spanish bastioned walls (sixteenth century) identifies the updating of the Lombard tradition to the practices of modern military architecture.
Castles, often built on hills with extremely steep slopes, or on sea cliffs overlooking stretches of water, were difficult to conquer. Construction techniques and geomorphology of the area were a key factor in making castles impregnable to sieges of military troops or bands of pirates or robbers. Today, the same characteristics make them difficult to survey. In fact, there are huge difficulties in surveying fortified structures on the top of hills or on the edge of a precipice.
Cartagena de Indias, one of the main Spanish commercial ports in the Caribbean Sea, was strategically built on a system of islands and peninsulas that formed a lacustrine system along the coast of Tierra Firme, known today as Colombia. For several centuries, Cartagena fortifications have been at the fore-front of Spanish military technologies. This site became the scene of action of the main military engineers at the service of the Spanish crown. In 1586 Battista Antonelli received from King Philipe II the task to design this monumental defensive system.
The research will deal with new methods about project and digital strategies: first starting from digital survey, operated with 3D laser scanner and photogrammetry procedures, allowing, through various operations, coordinated in a workflow to obtain a single point-cloud, derived from the alignment of all scan, to generate a complex 3D model, so called Building Information Model for Heritage (BIM-H).
All the fortifications have their time. They respond to specific way of defending and attacking they change in time accordingly to the terrible habits of the weaponry and technology evolution.
The focus of the work is on close-range photogrammetry and mainly on the low-cost technologies, experimented in the survey of Tower of Marina di Vietri, a historical building erected in the sixteenth century at Vietri sul Mare in the Province of Salerno. The general objective is to codify a methodology for objectifying the comparisons of the results; hence, the research starts from an original analysis conducted on the returned orthophotos by several photogrammetric paradigms.
The survey of the Lastra a Signa city walls (built between the second half of 1300 and the first half of 1400) is the result of three different survey campaigns made in 2006-2007-2008 and of the following data processing carried out as part of a Master thesis. It is a paradigmatic example of the overcoming of the concept of “survey as a mere measurement and graphic representation of a certain element”, by using a methodology protocol.