Against the threat of Islamic, Norman and Greek pirates, starting from the eighth century, or due to conflicts with the Genoese, Catalans, Neapolitans and French, up to the English and Dutch corsairs from the sixteenth century, Elba island is organized with a respectable defensive apparatus, especially thanks to the Pisans and the Lordship of the Appiano.
The landscape of Lazio’s Tyrrhenian coasts is strongly characterized by the presence of fortifications. Parallel to them, in the interland, the baronial expansion, between the tenth and eleventh centuries, paved the way to a large-scale fortification of the Roman countryside. Along the main routes were built lookout towers, farmhouses were consolidated with defense mechanism and the first castles were constructed.
In the studies the authors are conducting on the entrenched camp of Rome, 3D surveys and digital models are used as means to understand constructions with the aim of developing restoration and re-utilization projects. For Forte Monte Antenne (1882-1891), the authors have carried out systematic studies of the formal and structural aspects.
The application of integrated survey techniques and 3D modelling methodologies for Cultural Heritage analysis is now considered a consolidated process, while preserving and suggesting continuous research lines related from one side to the evolution of acquisition and restitution instruments, from the other to the problems linked to the specific case study and the goal of the research.
The essay proposes a project of enhancement and valorization of the Fort of Charles V to guard the harbor of Agrigento, in 1549.
The landscape of the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, south of Campania, is dotted with a wide variety of fortresses, castles, towers and all kinds of fortifications. The populations who settled there since the early Middle Ages have left traces of their presence through buildings that, from the initial purpose of independent defense of the individual settlement, have changed over time, especially in the Norman period, in a broader system and structured for the control of the territory.
The purpose of this contribution is to analyze the spatial distribution of the place names referred to the Tuscan territory, to fortified structures and settlements, through the study of the place names recorded geodatabase RE.TO.RE. (Regional Toponymic Repertory) created by the Tuscany Region with the scientific contribution of the Universities of Pisa, Florence and Siena.
The northwestern limit of the Seville domains constituted a complex frontier space of high potencial tension throughout the Late Middle Ages. Once the conquest of this historical territory was over, the council of Seville promotes the definition of a castral system destined to guarantee the guard and defense of its extensive territory.
The Piemonte cultural territory is also characterized by the significant presence of complex defensive systems, grouped by types and orographic configuration.
In the last 20 years the field of cultural heritage has experienced a revolution in terms of documentation methods. The latest technological advances in laser scanners and photogrammetry have opened the possibility of documenting in three dimensions all types of monuments and sites regardless of their size or complexity. In this revolution fortified spaces have not been an exception. Hundreds of research teams around the world have developed 3D digitization projects of castles and fortresses.