To oppose the phenomenon of waves of Turks threatening the most exposed areas of the Kingdom of Naples, the viceregal government ordered from 1535 the construction of a continuous and articulated chain of defensive coastal towers.
The Crown of Spain acquired, as it is known, the kingdom of Naples in 1504, which as Viceregno it will be part of the Spanish empire for more than two centuries. The empire between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was faced with various challenges, both internal and boundary, particularly maritime, attacked by the Ottoman expansion. Urban and coastal fortification plans were prepared and put in place to defend the territory.
Right after the Unification of Italy, land’s topography, with landscape acquisition and restitution through explorations across borders, and in particular regarding Austro-Hungarian fortification on the Italian land and sea border, were immediately observed by Major State’s officials.
Nicosia today has the characteristics of being the only divided city in Europe. By examining the inside of the walls, one observes that the structure of the city is determined by the circular plan of the walls that were constructed during the Venetian period. There are 11 bastions on the walls and three Venetian gates, namely Kyrenia Gate, Famagusta Gate and Paphos Gate, were originally designed to allow entrance to the city that is encircled by the walls. Nicosia continued to be the islands capital which has fallen under Ottoman rule in between 1571-1878.
Most of the walls of Cádiz is mainly due to the works carried out on the seventeenth century. During this period the defenses of the Puerta Tierra wall –the city’s only terrestrial communication point– were expanded with the incorporation of new defensive elements, such as the so-called “crownwork”. However, it was during the eighteenth century when this defensive element acquired its last configuration, which did not correspond to the last planned project.
The results of the investigation prior to the excavation work in the Castle of San Luis, in Estepona (Málaga, Spain) are presented. It is a coastal fortress built in the last quarter of the sixteenth century, in the context of the reorganisation of the defense of the western coast of Malaga after the Moorish rebellion of 1568. After analysing the available literature, we propose that it was designed by the Engineer Juan Ambrosio Malgrá, Maestro Mayor de obras del Reino de Granada.
The Ossola territories, in the area to the northwest of Milan, have constituted the western border most in contact with the nordic and tens-alpine world, ever since the first establishment of the Duchy of Milan. It is already known from G. Parker’s monography on the camino español that one of the common routes, which allowed overland redeployment of Spanish troops headed towards Flanders, from the Liguria region across central Europe, would go through Ossola and cross the Simplon Pass or the Gries Pass.
The citadel of Turin, built in the sixteenth century by the duke Emanuele Filiberto, became an expensive and obsolete object that hampered the enlargements during the nineteenth century. The Enlargement Plan for the capital designed by Carlo Promis (1851-1852) progressively reduced the military constraints facing the citadel. In 1856 the City Council decreed the demolition of the defensive structure. During the demolition one section of the building was spared: the donjon.
Which is the relationship between town and fortification? In a traditional perspective this has largely been considered a question of defense of the civilian population. However, this factor, though certainly important in several cases, cannot be seen as the only relevant factor addressing the problem. There are also other traditional explanations. One of these relates to questions of paying custom for selling and buying items. The fortified enclosure would make control of payment easier.
The Black Sea is an interior sea and located between Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, Georgia and Turkey. The Black Sea flows through the Bosporus and reaches the Marmara Sea. Strong winds and stream has seen in the Black Sea in most of times in a year. Because of that natural bays were preferred while the ports and settlements were established.