Old Navarino fortification (Palaiokastro) is located on the promontory supervising the naturally endowed Navarino-bay at the south-western foot of Peloponnese peninsula, near the contemporary city of Pylos. The cliff where it is built and where ancient relics lie, was fortified by Frankish in the thirteenth century.
The richness of historical heritage and the complex stratification of sites, combined with the defensive functions and techniques of the fortifications, confer an added value to the cities overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. The fortifications and the new harbours of Tripoli, Libya and Alexandria, Egypt are not isolated structures, which just enhance the qualities and visibility of the places where they are built.
In 1936-1939 the War of Spain took place, turning its territory into the testing ground of Europe in anticipation of the Second World War; here new weapons were tested: mass media, propaganda and aviation. The national side used Mallorca as “aircraft carrier” from which it launched airstrikes on the Mediterranean coast: a rearguard that required fortification. To defend the cities, the Republican government ordered, in 1937, to build a coastal defensive system (“Mediterranean Wall”).
The integrated method is been applied in the meet point between the curtain of Santa Chiara and the curtain of de Cardona, in a limited area of the ancient walls of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy). The sector consists of a bastion called “curtain of Santa Chiara” designed in 1575 and realized in the period 1575-1578 by the military engineer Giorgio Paleari and the “curtain of de Cardona”, a military work commissioned by the Viceroy in the 1930s of the same century and interested by modification until the seventeenth century.
Throughout history, Algerian coastal towns have been subject to various threats by sea, which has resulted in different types of fortification works. Their variety depended on their period of construction, the materials used and the genius of the place. In Algiers, these structures of fortifications vary between fortified castle, ramparts, watchtowers, etc. However, this historical legacy is, day after day, threatened with disappearance for lack of support.
The architect and military engineer Pedro Luis Escrivá (1490 ca.
A small A small village located in Italy on the Calabrian Tyrrhenian coast, Belmonte Calabro has its historic center with a typical medieval urban structure that has remained almost unchanged over the centuries and is characterized by the presence of the ruins of a castle and its surrounding environments whose. The planimetry succeeds to be identified because it is bordered by a wall, only partially preserved, pronounced by towers and marked by a road that, in its main points still existing, follows its development.
The recovery of the “mastio” and the surrounding courtyard of the new fortress of Volterra (1472-1474) has as its objective the opening to the public of this fortified work, after 542 years from its construction, with the possibility of being enjoyed without interposing with the prison function of the complex, it also represents the possibility of knowledge and study of a constructive typology in the context of the Renaissance fortified architecture of the Italian school called “transition” with the use of the first arti
Where now stands the city of Cerveteri (RM), between the ninth and third century BC took form one of the most important city-states of Etruria: Caere.
The areas of the central Apennines of Italy constitute a particularly interesting research laboratory with its perched towns and its castles. Here there is a close link between the quantity of fortifications and the prevailing mountainous terrain. This has fixed in the history of the places a condition of correspondence that acts as a counterpoint to all its culture, from the economy to the costumes to the forms of the settlement.