During his reign Frederick II built a series of representative fortified constructions in southern Italy, and after reinforcing the defence line of the border with the State of the Church, he decided to build many residential estates called domus or palacium in the fundamental medieval textual source of Statutum de reparatione castrorum.
The castle is located at the eastern part of the Gallipoli’s old town: the first data in archives and libraries started from the sixth century under the mention of castrum and in the following centurie there are many informations on parchments, written documents and bibliography published until today.
The Crown of Spain acquired, as it is known, the kingdom of Naples in 1504, which as Viceregno it will be part of the Spanish empire for more than two centuries. The empire between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was faced with various challenges, both internal and boundary, particularly maritime, attacked by the Ottoman expansion. Urban and coastal fortification plans were prepared and put in place to defend the territory.
Right after the Unification of Italy, land’s topography, with landscape acquisition and restitution through explorations across borders, and in particular regarding Austro-Hungarian fortification on the Italian land and sea border, were immediately observed by Major State’s officials.
Nicosia today has the characteristics of being the only divided city in Europe. By examining the inside of the walls, one observes that the structure of the city is determined by the circular plan of the walls that were constructed during the Venetian period. There are 11 bastions on the walls and three Venetian gates, namely Kyrenia Gate, Famagusta Gate and Paphos Gate, were originally designed to allow entrance to the city that is encircled by the walls. Nicosia continued to be the islands capital which has fallen under Ottoman rule in between 1571-1878.
Most of the walls of Cádiz is mainly due to the works carried out on the seventeenth century. During this period the defenses of the Puerta Tierra wall –the city’s only terrestrial communication point– were expanded with the incorporation of new defensive elements, such as the so-called “crownwork”. However, it was during the eighteenth century when this defensive element acquired its last configuration, which did not correspond to the last planned project.
The results of the investigation prior to the excavation work in the Castle of San Luis, in Estepona (Málaga, Spain) are presented. It is a coastal fortress built in the last quarter of the sixteenth century, in the context of the reorganisation of the defense of the western coast of Malaga after the Moorish rebellion of 1568. After analysing the available literature, we propose that it was designed by the Engineer Juan Ambrosio Malgrá, Maestro Mayor de obras del Reino de Granada.