Old Navarino fortification (Palaiokastro) is located on the promontory supervising the naturally endowed Navarino-bay at the south-western foot of Peloponnese peninsula, near the contemporary city of Pylos. The cliff where it is built and where ancient relics lie, was fortified by Frankish in the thirteenth century.
The richness of historical heritage and the complex stratification of sites, combined with the defensive functions and techniques of the fortifications, confer an added value to the cities overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. The fortifications and the new harbours of Tripoli, Libya and Alexandria, Egypt are not isolated structures, which just enhance the qualities and visibility of the places where they are built.
In 1936-1939 the War of Spain took place, turning its territory into the testing ground of Europe in anticipation of the Second World War; here new weapons were tested: mass media, propaganda and aviation. The national side used Mallorca as “aircraft carrier” from which it launched airstrikes on the Mediterranean coast: a rearguard that required fortification. To defend the cities, the Republican government ordered, in 1937, to build a coastal defensive system (“Mediterranean Wall”).
The integrated method is been applied in the meet point between the curtain of Santa Chiara and the curtain of de Cardona, in a limited area of the ancient walls of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy). The sector consists of a bastion called “curtain of Santa Chiara” designed in 1575 and realized in the period 1575-1578 by the military engineer Giorgio Paleari and the “curtain of de Cardona”, a military work commissioned by the Viceroy in the 1930s of the same century and interested by modification until the seventeenth century.
Throughout history, Algerian coastal towns have been subject to various threats by sea, which has resulted in different types of fortification works. Their variety depended on their period of construction, the materials used and the genius of the place. In Algiers, these structures of fortifications vary between fortified castle, ramparts, watchtowers, etc. However, this historical legacy is, day after day, threatened with disappearance for lack of support.
The areas of the central Apennines of Italy constitute a particularly interesting research laboratory with its perched towns and its castles. Here there is a close link between the quantity of fortifications and the prevailing mountainous terrain. This has fixed in the history of the places a condition of correspondence that acts as a counterpoint to all its culture, from the economy to the costumes to the forms of the settlement.
Aim of the paper is the historical-critical study of Castel Camponeschi (aka Castello di Prata), a village at about 25 km from L’Aquila city (Italy), with peculiar urban characteristics –a herringbone pattern– probably founded in the thirteenth century and characterized by important phenomena of modification and stratification. The study roots on the direct analysis of the built heritage through the architectural surveying, realized at multiple scales from the urban settlement to the masonry structures.
The Fortress of Arquata del Tronto in the Marche region is an imposing structure that rises on the crag to the north of the historic center. It represents a typical example of military architecture in the Apennines Area. Its foundation is between the eleventh and the twelfth century, an initial phase of embankment which undergoes a gradual and progressive increase in structures to enhance the functionality of the fortress.
The Maida castle is located in a hill site in historical center of the Maida City, facing two sea gulfs: Squillace gulf on the east side and Sant’Eufemia gulf on the west side. The position is strategic moreover because the castle is located in the center of Calabria between the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian Seas. Hidden in an inner area, the castle was erected on a rock which has a wide perspective view, giving the ability to control a stretch of territory between the two coasts and allowing to make an easier defense.