Ceuta is built on a peninsula at the southern shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. It’s a strategic point for communications between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and between two continents: Europe and Africa. As Ceuta ships rule the Gibraltar Strait in Medieval and Modern Ages, main defensive efforts were tuned of to Land Front. Consequently, in 950 ‘Abd al-Rahman III built a new fence in order to protect the madina reusing Roman and Byzantine fortifications.
In Irpinia, to grasp the extent to which the multiform and varied castellated density still has today, it is necessary to look at its hilly and mountainous landscapes or read the toponyms of its villages: from the recent study carried out in the Province of Avellino, there is a list of 78 castles still visible in elevation, a very high figure if you consider that the entire provincial territory is composed of 118 municipalities, for a percentage of almost 70%.
In southern Italy, and also in Calabria, fortified masserie represent a typical building model meant for the management, the control and the defense of the territory and of the rural heritage. This occurs especially in areas where, before the agricultural reform of the mid-twentieth century, the latifundium was the main model of property organization.
The shape that today characterizes the fortified building of the castle of Morrea is only the last of the various stratifications that have modified the original layout thorughout the centuries. The current aspect of the building is most likely linked to the interventions promoted by the Piccolomini family between the twentieth and twenty-first century.
The so-called “beach-tower” is the smallest of the three remaining towers belonging to the Kyrenia’s medieval enceinte. Semi-circular in plan, with circa 6 m of diameter, the tower is today partially obliterated by the medieval urban tissue and is visible only from one side. Built during the twelfth-thirteenth centuries, this harbour overlooking tower is raised on a pedestal in the north-west inner corner of the city walled enclosure.
The Andalusian Defensive Architecture Plan (PADA) justifies the legal protection of all Andalusian defensive architecture based on the historical condition of the region as a border of kingdoms and civilizations. It supports by using the Decree of April 22, 1949 on the protection of Spanish castles; to the subsequent Law 16/1985 on Spanish Historical Heritage, which declared Bien de Interés Cultural the assets included in the Decree of 1949; and extending the term “castle” to the more generic of “defensive architecture” or “military architecture”.
In this article we deal with the unique coastal defensive belt that the city of Malaga has in Nasrid times, about the origin of it and its process of building as well as its functionalities that exceed the purely defensive ones. The first constructions aimed at defending the city from the sea correspond to the dynasty, with the construction of the alcazaba and the defensive fence of the medina, as well as incipient atarazanas, a cast of works of political propaganda.
Between the 1980s and 1990s, the Almoina site in Valencia was excavated by the SIAM (Municipal Service of Archeological Research) and also, in the following decade, the subsoil of the Almudín and the San Luis Beltrán square. In these surveys, remains of the fortifications of the Alcazar were found, as well the royal cemetery and the palatine dwellings that were presumably inside the enclosure. However, the excavation has been partial and not allowed us to understand the functioning of the complex.
This work focuses on the first results from the systematic excavation of the Tossal de la Vila (Serra d’en Galceran, Castelló) archaeological site. This is, a hillfort build during the Emirate of al-Andalus in the intersection between the territories of Tortosa, Valencia and the Iberian System mountain ranges. Our case study is framed within the historiographic discussion on the subject of rocky and castellated settlements in this area set forth thirty years ago by André Bazzana.