Throughout history, Algerian coastal towns have been subject to various threats by sea, which has resulted in different types of fortification works. Their variety depended on their period of construction, the materials used and the genius of the place. In Algiers, these structures of fortifications vary between fortified castle, ramparts, watchtowers, etc. However, this historical legacy is, day after day, threatened with disappearance for lack of support.
Where now stands the city of Cerveteri (RM), between the ninth and third century BC took form one of the most important city-states of Etruria: Caere.
Biandrate is a northern Italian village in the province of Novara that lies in the Po plain between the Sesia and Ticino rivers. Border area disputed between Vercelli and Novara, since the early Middle Ages it represented an important crossing point because there were the fords of the Sesia river nearby, on the road axis joining Novara and Ivrea.
The castle of La Vilavella (Castellón) stands on the slopes of San Sebastián, and its various constructions follow the craggy relief of the hill, on the outskirts of the town to the west. The castle is currently an imposing ruin on top of a hill, a landmark which dominates the inland landscape as well as the plains to the sea. Part of the castle’s walled complex, which stretches along 230 m of the local topography with a maximum width of 60 m, is conserved.
This article develops a research on the outside layout of the Tower of Comares in the Alhambra (Granada), studying its transformations. It is focused on the interventions that took place at the most critical moment in its history. Between the last decades of the sixteenth century and the first ones of the seventeenth century, its general state of abandonment, the explosion of a nearby powder mill and the bad restauration practices applied in some cases, brought it to its structural limits, threatening its ruin.
The contribution reports on a research concerning the preparatory investigation of some fortified systems of Tanaro Valley (Piedmont) in view of their restoration.
The castle of Arnara, is located in Ciociaria in southern Lazio, in what was once the feud of the Conti of Ceccano. For the territory it is the most important monumental complex of medieval architecture. In fact, despite its small size, it is one of the few examples of fortified architecture still original in its essential lines.
The fortress of San Paolino in Ripafratta (San Giuliano Terme, Tuscany, Italy), represents the main structure of the ancient Pisan Republic defensive system towards Lucca. The fortress is the product of several stratifications dating back to the tenth century. It was built in the years between 1162-1164; later on, starting from 1504, significant interventions of modernization were realized by the Florentine Government, probably following a project by Giuliano da San Gallo.
What are the risk factors that undermine the conservation of fortified architecture? What are the future prospects of a heritage that is not always adequately protected and valued? These are the questions posed by castles, towers, fortresses that seem to have lost the meaning of their existence, for having failed in their original function. Certainly the abandonment involves an inevitable lack of maintenance with the inevitable decay due to natural causes with slow action and prolonged over time.
The paper illustrates the documentation and analysis methods of a wing of the Kyrenia castle in Cyprus. The laser-scanner and photogrammetry Structure from Motion (SfM) survey campaigns took place during the international workshop “Reading and designing the Kyrenia Castle” held in May 2018 in Girne, involving the Girne American University (Cyprus) and the University of Florence.